A means of giving credit to the original source of information without interrupting the discussion in the text. Word processors have simplified adding footnotes to the bottom of the page; therefore, directions for individual manufacturers must be followed. However, there are some common rules.
- Any quotations or ideas must be followed by a footnote number, in succession. This number is one-half space above the line.
- Footnotes should be documented in the following manner:
Indent five spaces. Number Period Two spaces Author's first name followed by initials if available Space Author's last name Comma Space Title underlined with all important words begun with capital letters One space Parentheses City of Publisher Colon Two spaces Publisher Comma Two spaces Year of most recent publication End of parentheses Space Page number only Period.
- Only the first line of a footnote is indented; the remaining lines of each footnote must begin at the left margin.
- Always use Arabic numbers. (1,2,3 etc.)
- Double space all footnotes.
- When repeating references previously cited in an earlier footnote write: Number of footnote Period Author's last name Comma Title of work underlined Page number(s) Period.
- If typing footnotes at the bottom of the page follow these general guidelines.
a. The footnotes appearing on each page must be documented on the bottom of that page.
b. Separate the footnote section from the text by single spacing and placing a horizontal line of about 1-1/2 inches from the left hand margin with the underscore key of the typewriter.
c. Double space and begin documentation.
1. Charles W. C. Oman, Castles (New York: Beekman House, 1978) 21.
Reference book with an editor
2. Stanley, Sadie, ed., The Norton/Grove Concise Encyclopedia of Music (New York:
Norton, 1988) 189.
Two authors who are editors
(Note: If the authors are not editors, omit "eds.")
3. Gay Su Pinnell and Myna L. Matlin, eds., Teachers and Research (Delaware: International Reading Assoc., 1989) 128.
An article written in an anthology or collection of articles
4. Kenneth Goodman, "Language Development: Issues, Insights, and Implementation," Teachers and Research, ed. Gay Su Pinnell and Myna L. Matlin (Delaware: International Reading Assoc., 1989) 137.
An anonymous book (no author given)
5. Volcano. (Alexandria: Time Life Books, 1984) 35.
An reference from an encyclopedia (Omit volume and page reference)
6. "International Peace Garden," Encyclopedia Americana, 1992 ed.
7. Oman, Castles. 132.
A newspaper article
(Note the edition and section of the paper must be included if the newspaper has several daily editions and is large enough to have sections.)
8. Paul, McEnroe, "Security gaps found at airport," Star Tribune 21 July 1996, Mpls. ed.: Al.
A magazine article
(Note the form of the date and two spaces before the page numbers)
9. Julie Campbell, "Captivated by Costa Rica," Sports Illustrated 20 Feb. 1995: 109.
10. David Lewis, "Martin Luther King, Jr." The Academic American Encyclopedia (Electronic Vers.), 1996 Grolier, Inc., Danbury CT.
Written according to the same rules as footnotes except endnotes are written on a separate page following the text not at the bottom of the text page.
- The separate endnote page should be arranged with the title Endnotes centered at the top of the page. (Do not put in all capital letters and do not underline.)
- Subsequent pages of endnotes do not need to be labeled.