St. Croix Lutheran High School
Home : Student Resources: Style Guide : Reference

Reference Words and Abbreviations



AD anno Domini: "in the year of the Lord" - precedes numerals: often printed in all caps; no space between letters and no periods after each letter. Avoid using reference to centuries. Cf. BC.
anon anonymous
art., arts article(s)
b. born
BC Before Christ - follows numerals; often printed in all caps; no space between. Cf. AD.
bibliog. bibliography, -er, ical
biog. biography, -er, -ical
bk., bks. book(s)
c copyright
c., (ca.) circa 'about' (used with approximate dates: c. 1650)
ch., chs. chap. chaps. chapter(s)
d. died
ed., eds. editor(s), -ion(s), ed by
e.g. exempli gratia 'for example' (rarely capitalized; set off by commas, unless preceded by a different punctuation mark)
esp. especially (as in pp. 248-63, esp. p.251)
et al. et alii, et aliae 'and others'
etc. et cetera 'and so forth' (like most abbreviation, not appropriate in the text of the research paper)
ex., exs. example
fig., figs. figure(s)

id est 'that is' (rarely captialized; set off by commas, unless preceded by a different punctuation mark.

illus. illustrated, -or, -ion(s)
1., 11. line(s)
introd. introduction ("by" is understood in context)
n., nn. note(s) use immediately following the page number (34n, 34n2, 34nn2-5)
narr. narrator, narrated by
NB nota bene 'take notice' or 'mark well' (always capitalized, do not punctuate
p. pp. page numbers, do not capitalize, do not use abbreviation before page numbers in citations
pub., pubs. publ.,publs. published by, publisher, publication
rev. revised (by), revision; review, -ed by. it is better to spell out "review" if there is any possibility of ambiguity.
sc. scene
ser. series
sic 'thus so' - Between square brackets when used as an editorial comment; otherwise within parentheses. Avoid using with an exclamation mark.
St., sts., stanza
St., Sts., (S,SS) Saint, Saints
trans. (tr.) translated
v., w. (vs., vss.) verse(s)
vers. version
viz., with or without a period
vol., vols. volume(s)
vs. (v.) versus: means "against" (v. preferred in legal cases)
writ. written by, writer




last updated: 5-jan-04