A. Indent the first sentence of each paragraph.
B. Avoid using many short or many long paragraphs in succession.
A. Incorporate the title of works referred to in the paper into the text of the paper. Indicate the type of work researched by using the following forms of punctuation:
A. All quotations reproduce the cited work word for word. This includes word order, spelling, and punctuation.
B. Some longer quotations require special punctuation.
A. The most acceptable method of citing references is the in-text reference rather than a footnote. Egs. (Smythe 62)
B. If a direct quotation is included within the text without a reference to the author within the body of the text, simply include author's last name and the page number within parentheses after the end quotation marks but before the period. "Daily exercise is the single most important factor in preventing osteoporosis "(Smythe 43).
C. The reference made to a specific work may incorporate the author's name into the text and include the page or line reference enclosed in parentheses after the end quotation marks but before the period. In his book, Mr. James Smythe stresses that "daily exercise is the single most important factor in preventing osteoporosis " (43).
D. If a quote is taken from an author with several literary selections referred to in the body of the paper, the author's last name, title of reference, and page number are included in the parentheses after the end quotation marks but before the period. "Daily exercise is the single most important factor in preventing osteoporosis" (Smythe, Aging Gracefully 43).
E. If information is paraphrased (rewritten in one's own words), the information must still be documented. After the paraphrase include the author's last name and page number(s) from where the information was taken. Egs. (Smythe 43).Two or more authors are cited as follows: (Smythe and Jones 45) or (Smythe,Jones, and McCall 46).
A. Usage of all punctuation should be as consistent as possible.
B. Wherever commas are considered optional, prefer to omit the comma.
C. Unless the context clearly calls for one, omit exclamation marks.
D. Avoid hyphenation as much as possible. Refer to a dictionary when in doubt about syllabic breakdown.
E. Periods end sentences within texts and notes, and periods end footnotes and bibliographical references listed under the Works Cited.
F. Periods may follow a set of parentheses that fall at the end of a sentence (such as this).
G. (A period is placed within the parentheses when the parenthetical element is independent.)
H. Enclose in quotation marks words to which attention is being directed such as: slang, words purposely misused, words not used in their normal part of speech and English translation of words or phrases from a foreign language.
I. Quotations within a quotation require special punctuation.
A. Generally, within the body of the text, numbers of fewer than two digits should be spelled out except in technical or statistical listings or in footnotes or works cited.
B. Never use a capital I for the Arabic number one. If using a typewriter with no "1," use the lower case "l."
C. Numerals beginning sentences should always be spelled out. Forty-four people were in attendance.
D. Writing dates should be consistent, although dates may be written two different ways.
E. When referring to a century or decade follow the following rules.
F. In connecting consecutive numbers, give the second in full for numbers through 99; for larger numbers give only two figures of the second if it is within the same hundred: 21-28; 345-46; 1608-74; 12345-49.
G. When writing Roman Numerals use capital letters following names,(Henry VIII), acts of plays, or scenes of plays, if so designated by the instructor.
H. Use lower case letters when citing page numbers numbered in such a way. (This type of numbering system is usually found in a preface.)
A. Spelling, including hyphenation, must be consistent, except when copying a direct quotation including a unique spelling or a dialect.
B. Use one standard dictionary throughout.
C. Possessive forms of nouns use an apostrophe.
D. Capitalize the first letter of the first word and of all principal words.
A. The first time you refer to a person within the body of the text use the full name.
B. Do not use titles such as Dr., Rev., Mr., Mrs., or Ms.; use only last names.
C. After the initial reference, only the surname (last name) needs to be used, unless there are two people with the same last name. Then it is proper to include the initial of the first name. (M. Mead)
last updated: 5-jan-04